LAPISAN-LAPISAN ATMOSFERA


Oleh: Harun Yahya

Satu fakta tentang alam semesta sebagaimana dinyatakan dalam Al Qur’an adalah bahwa langit terdiri atas tujuh lapis.

“Dia-lah Allah, yang menjadikan segala yang ada di bumi untuk kamu dan Dia berkehendak menuju langit, lalu dijadikan-Nya tujuh langit. Dan Dia Maha Mengetahui segala sesuatu.” (Al Qur’an, 2:29)

Kemudian Dia menuju langit, dan langit itu masih merupakan asap. Maka Dia menjadikannya tujuh langit dalam dua masa dan Dia mewahyukan pada tiap-tiap langit urusannya.” (Al Qur’an, 41:11-12)

Kata “langit”, yang kerap kali muncul di banyak ayat dalam Al Qur’an, digunakan untuk mengacu pada “langit” bumi dan juga keseluruhan alam semesta. Dengan makna kata seperti ini, terlihat bahwa langit bumi atau atmosfera terdiri dari tujuh lapisan.

Saat ini benar-benar diketahui bahwa atmosfir bumi terdiri atas lapisan-lapisan yang berbeda yang saling bertumpukan. Lebih dari itu, persis sebagaimana dinyatakan dalam Al Qur’an, atmosfera terdiri atas tujuh lapisan. Dalam sumber ilmiah, hal tersebut diuraikan sebagai berikut:

Para ilmuwan menemukan bahwa atmosfer terdiri diri beberapa lapisan. Lapisan-lapisan tersebut berbeda dalam ciri-ciri fisik, seperti tekanan dan jenis gasnya. Lapisan atmosfer yang terdekat dengan bumi disebut TROPOSFERA. Ia membentuk sekitar 90% dari keseluruhan massa atmosfer. Lapisan di atas troposfer disebut STRATOSFER.A LAPISAN OZON adalah bagian dari stratosfer di mana terjadi penyerapan sinar ultraviolet. Lapisan di atas stratosfer disebut MESOSFERA. . TERMOSFERA berada di atas mesosfer. Gas-gas terionisasi membentuk suatu lapisan dalam termosfer yang disebut IONOSFERA. Bagian terluar atmosfer bumi membentang dari sekitar 480 km hingga 960 km. Bahagian ini dinamakan EKSOSFERA. (Carolyn Sheets, Robert Gardner, Samuel F. Howe; General Science, Allyn and Bacon Inc. Newton, Massachusetts, 1985, s. 319-322)

Jika kita hitung jumlah lapisan yang dinyatakan dalam sumber ilmiah tersebut, kita ketahui bahwa atmosfera tepat terdiri atas tujuh lapis, seperti dinyatakan dalam ayat tersebut.

  1. Troposfera
  2. Stratosfera
  3. Ozonosfera
  4. Mesosfera
  5. Termosfera
  6. Ionosfera
  7. Eksosfera

Keajaiban penting lain dalam hal ini disebutkan dalam surat Fushshilat ayat ke-12,

… Dia mewahyukan pada tiap-tiap langit urusannya.

Dengan kata lain, Allah dalam ayat ini menyatakan bahwa Dia memberikan kepada setiap langit tugas atau fungsinya masing-masing. Sebagaimana dapat dipahami, tiap-tiap lapisan atmosfir ini memiliki fungsi penting yang bermanfaat bagi kehidupan umat manusia dan seluruh makhluk hidup lain di Bumi. Setiap lapisan memiliki fungsi khusus, dari pembentukan hujan hingga perlindungan terhadap radiasi sinar-sinar berbahaya; dari pemantulan gelombang radio hingga perlindungan terhadap impak meteor yang berbahaya.

Atmosfera bumi memiliki 7 lapisan. Lapisan terendah dinamakan troposfir. Hujan, salju, dan angin hanya terjadi pada troposfera.

Adalah sebuah keajaiban besar bahwa fakta-fakta ini, yang tak mungkin ditemukan tanpa teknologi canggih abad ke-20, secara jelas dinyatakan oleh Al Qur’an 1.400 tahun yang lalu.

NISBAH KELUASAN DARAT DAN LAUT DI BONGKAR OLEH ALQURAN



Harus berani dihadapkan dengan segala macam soalan, segala zaman, segala segi, segala sisi, dari sudut manapun & harus sepanjang zaman.

Dari segi sastera, matematika, astronomi, sains, tata negara, muamalat, ekonomi, Kode-kode angka, jumlah surah, jumlah ayat, jumlah kalimat, jumlah huruf, segala ilmu, segala abad, sejak penciptaan alam semesta, masa lalu, masa kini, masa depan, sehingga masa kiamat & kehidupan setelah kiamat sekalipun.

Dan zaman ini ialah zaman ilmu pengetahuan, apakah Qur’an dapat mengikuti perkembangan zaman? Ilmu pengetahuan modern kini membuktikan bhw air meliputi 71,111% wilayah bumi, dan daratan menutupi 28,8889%.

Dalam Qur’an disebutkan kata “DARAT” sebanyak 13 ayat, dan kata “LAUT” ialah 32 ayat. Mari kita parhatikan:

Darat=13 ayat
Laut=32 ayat
Jumlah= 45 ayat
Percentage DARAT: = 13/45 =28.888888889%
Percentage LAUT = 32/45 =71.111111111%

Oleh itu
Pendapat Qur’an, Darat = 28.889%, Laut=71.111%
Bukti Ilmiah Nyata, Darat=28.889%, Laut=71.111%

Maka mengapa mereka tak juga beriman? Mengapa mereka masih memfitnah Rasulullah Muhammad SAW yang mengarang Qur’anul Kariim ini??? Apakah mereka tidak memperhatikan?

Maka apakah mereka tidak memperhatikan Al Quran? Kalau kiranya Al Quran itu bukan dari sisi Allah, tentulah mereka mendapat pertentangan yang banyak di dalamnya. QS. 4 An-Nisaa’:82.

Allah menyatakan jika bukti kebenaran Qur’an itu ada pada seluruh alam dan termasuk diri kita sendiri.

Kami akan memperlihatkan kepada mereka tanda-tanda Kami di segala wilayah bumi dan pada diri mereka sendiri, hingga jelas bagi mereka bahwa Al Quran itu adalah benar. Tiadakah cukup bahwa sesungguhnya Tuhanmu menjadi saksi atas segala sesuatu. – Qs. 41 Fushshilat:53.

Sekarang, mari kita lihat lagi mukjizat lainnya masih soalan angka.

SOLAT, disebutkan 5 kali
BULAN, disebutkan 12 kali
HARI, disebutkan 365 kali

Apakah ini kebetulan? Bagaimana dengan keseimbangan jumlah perkataan di dalam al-Quran di bawah ini:

1. Dunia disebutkan 115 kali. Akhirat disebutkan 115 kali.
2. Malaikat 88 kali, syaitan 88 kali.
3. Kehidupan 145 kali, kematian 145 kali.
4. Kebaikan/manfaat 50 kali, jahat 50 kali.
5. Orang2 50 kali, nabi 50 kali.
6. Iblis 11 kali, menyelamatkan diri dari iblis 11 kali.
7. Musibah (bencana) 75 kali, syukur 75 kali.
8. Shodaqoh 75 kali, kepuasan 75 kali.
9. Orang2 yg tersesat 17 kali, syuhada 17 kali.
10. Muslimin 41 kali, jihad 41 kali.
11. Emas 8 kali, kehidupan yg mudah 8 kali.
12. Sihir 60 kali, fitnah 60 kali.
13. Zakat 32 kali, barokah 32 kali.
14. Pikiran 39 kali, cahaya 39 kali.
15. Lidah 25 kali, khotbah 25 kali.
16. Harapan 8 kali, ketakutan/kecemasan 8 kali.
17. Berbicara di depan publik 18 kali, pempublikasian 18 kali.
18. Penderitaan 114 kali, kesabaran 114 kali.
19. Muhammad 4 kali, syari’ah (ajaran rasululloh saw) 4 kali.
20. Laki2 24 kali, wanita 24 kali.

Apakah ini satu kebetulan kebetulan pulak? Apakah ini karangan dari Rasullullah Muhammad SAW yang tak dapat menulis & dari zaman 1400 tahun lalu?

أَفَلَا يَتَدَبَّرُونَ الْقُرْآنَ ۚ وَلَوْ كَانَ مِنْ عِندِ غَيْرِ اللَّهِ لَوَجَدُوا فِيهِ اخْتِلَافًا كَثِيرًا ﴿٨٢﴾

Patutkah mereka (bersikap demikian), tidak mahu memikirkan isi Al-Quran? Kalaulah Al-Quran itu (datangnya) bukan dari sisi Allah, nescaya mereka akan dapati perselisihan yang banyak di dalamnya. – An-Nisaa – ayat 82.

فَوَيْلٌ لِّلَّذِينَ يَكْتُبُونَ الْكِتَابَ بِأَيْدِيهِمْ ثُمَّ يَقُولُونَ هَـٰذَا مِنْ عِندِ اللَّهِ لِيَشْتَرُوا بِهِ ثَمَنًا قَلِيلًا ۖ فَوَيْلٌ لَّهُم مِّمَّا كَتَبَتْ أَيْدِيهِمْ وَوَيْلٌ لَّهُم مِّمَّا يَكْسِبُونَ ﴿٧٩﴾

Kecelakaan besar bagi orang-orang yang menulis Kitab Taurat dengan tangan mereka (lalu mengubah Kalam Allah dengan rekaan-rekaan mereka), kemudian mereka berkata: Ini ialah dari sisi Allah, supaya mereka dengan perbuatan itu dapat membeli keuntungan dunia yang sedikit. Maka kecelakaan besar bagi mereka disebabkan apa yang ditulis oleh tangan mereka dan kecelakaan besar bagi mereka dari apa yang mereka usahakan itu. – Baqarah – ayat 79.

Waallahu Alam.

THE QURAN ON HUMAN EMBRYONIC DEVELOPMENT


In the Holy Quran, God speaks about the stages of man’s embryonic development:

 We created man from an extract of clay.  Then We made him as a drop in a place of settlement, firmly fixed.  Then We made the drop into an alaqah (leech, suspended thing, and blood clot), then We made the alaqah into a mudghah (chewed substance)… 1 (Quran, 23:12-14)

Literally, the Arabic word alaqah has three meanings: (1) leech, (2) suspended thing, and (3) blood clot.

In comparing a leech to an embryo in the alaqah stage, we find similarity between the two2 as we can see in figure 1.  Also, the embryo at this stage obtains nourishment from the blood of the mother, similar to the leech, which feeds on the blood of others.3

Figure 1

Figure 1: Drawings illustrating the similarities in appearance between a leech and a human embryo at the alaqah stage. (Leech drawing from Human Development as Described in the Quran and Sunnah, Moore and others, p. 37, modified from Integrated Principles of Zoology, Hickman and others.  Embryo drawing from The Developing Human, Moore and Persaud, 5th ed., p. 73.)

The second meaning of the word alaqah is “suspended thing.”  This is what we can see in figures 2 and 3, the suspension of the embryo, during the alaqah stage, in the womb of the mother.

Figure 2: We can see in this diagram the suspension of an embryo during the alaqah stage in the womb (uterus) of the mother. (The Developing Human, Moore and Persaud, 5th ed., p. 66.)  (Click on the image to enlarge it.)

Figure 2  (Click here to enlarge)

   
Figure 3: In this photomicrograph, we can see the suspension of an embryo (marked B) during the alaqah stage (about 15 days old) in the womb of the mother.  The actual size of the embryo is about 0.6 mm. (The Developing Human, Moore, 3rd ed., p. 66, from Histology, Leeson and Leeson.)

Figure 3

The third meaning of the word alaqah is “blood clot.”  We find that the external appearance of the embryo and its sacs during the alaqah stage is similar to that of a blood clot.  This is due to the presence of relatively large amounts of blood present in the embryo during this stage4 (see figure 4).  Also during this stage, the blood in the embryo does not circulate until the end of the third week.5  Thus, the embryo at this stage is like a clot of blood.

Figure 4: Diagram of the primitive cardiovascular system in an embryo during the alaqah stage.  The external appearance of the embryo and its sacs is similar to that of a blood clot, due to the presence of relatively large amounts of blood present in the embryo. (The Developing Human, Moore, 5th ed., p. 65.)  (Click on the image to enlarge it.) Figure 4  (Click here to enlarge)

So the three meanings of the word alaqah correspond accurately to the descriptions of the embryo at the alaqah stage.

The next stage mentioned in the verse is the mudghah stage.  The Arabic word mudghah means “chewed substance.”  If one were to take a piece of gum and chew it in his or her mouth and then compare it with an embryo at the mudghah stage, we would conclude that the embryo at the mudghah stage acquires the appearance of a chewed substance.  This is because of the somites at the back of the embryo that “somewhat resemble teethmarks in a chewed substance.”6 (see figures 5 and 6).

Figure 5: Photograph of an embryo at the mudghah stage (28 days old).  The embryo at this stage acquires the appearance of a chewed substance, because the somites at the back of the embryo somewhat resemble teeth marks in a chewed substance.  The actual size of the embryo is 4 mm. (The Developing Human, Moore and Persaud, 5th ed., p. 82, from Professor Hideo Nishimura, Kyoto University, Kyoto, Japan.) Figure 5
   
Figure 6: When comparing the appearance of an embryo at the mudghah stage with a piece of gum that has been chewed, we find similarity between the two.
A) Drawing of an embryo at the mudghah stage.  We can see here the somites at the back of the embryo that look like teeth marks. (The Developing Human, Moore and Persaud, 5th ed., p. 79.)
B) Photograph of a piece of gum that has been chewed.
(Click on the image to enlarge it.)
Figure 6  (Click here to enlarge)

How could Muhammad  have possibly known all this 1400 years ago, when scientists have only recently discovered this using advanced equipment and powerful microscopes which did not exist at that time?  Hamm and Leeuwenhoek were the first scientists to observe human sperm cells (spermatozoa) using an improved microscope in 1677 (more than 1000 years after Muhammad ).  They mistakenly thought that the sperm cell contained a miniature preformed human being that grew when it was deposited in the female genital tract.7

Professor Emeritus Keith L. Moore8 is one of the world’s most prominent scientists in the fields of anatomy and embryology and is the author of the book entitled The Developing Human, which has been translated into eight languages.  This book is a scientific reference work and was chosen by a special committee in the United States as the best book authored by one person.  Dr. Keith Moore is Professor Emeritus of Anatomy and Cell Biology at the University of Toronto, Toronto, Canada.  There, he was Associate Dean of Basic Sciences at the Faculty of Medicine and for 8 years was the Chairman of the Department of Anatomy.  In 1984, he received the most distinguished award presented in the field of anatomy in Canada, the J.C.B. Grant Award from the Canadian Association of Anatomists.  He has directed many international associations, such as the Canadian and American Association of Anatomists and the Council of the Union of Biological Sciences.

In 1981, during the Seventh Medical Conference in Dammam, Saudi Arabia, Professor Moore said: “It has been a great pleasure for me to help clarify statements in the Quran about human development.  It is clear to me that these statements must have come to Muhammad from God, because almost all of this knowledge was not discovered until many centuries later.  This proves to me that Muhammad must have been a messenger of God.”9  (To view the RealPlayer video of this comment click here Video Clip).

Consequently, Professor Moore was asked the following question: “Does this mean that you believe that the Quran is the word of God?”  He replied: “I find no difficulty in accepting this.”10

During one conference, Professor Moore stated: “….Because the staging of human embryos is complex, owing to the continuous process of change during development, it is proposed that a new system of classification could be developed using the terms mentioned in the Quran and Sunnah (what Muhammad  said, did, or approved of).  The proposed system is simple, comprehensive, and conforms with present embryological knowledge.  The intensive studies of the Quran and hadeeth (reliably transmitted reports by the Prophet Muhammad’s  companions of what he said, did, or approved of) in the last four years have revealed a system for classifying human embryos that is amazing since it was recorded in the seventh century A.D.  Although Aristotle, the founder of the science of embryology, realized that chick embryos developed in stages from his studies of hen’s eggs in the fourth century B.C., he did not give any details about these stages.  As far as it is known from the history of embryology, little was known about the staging and classification of human embryos until the twentieth century.  For this reason, the descriptions of the human embryo in the Quran cannot be based on scientific knowledge in the seventh century.  The only reasonable conclusion is: these descriptions were revealed to Muhammad from God.  He could not have known such details because he was an illiterate man with absolutely no scientific training.”11  (View the RealPlayer video of this comment Video Clip).

Footnotes:

(1) Please note that what is between these special brackets  …  in this web site is only a translation of the meaning of the Quran.  It is not the Quran itself, which is in Arabic.

(2) The Developing Human, Moore and Persaud, 5th ed., p. 8.

(3) Human Development as Described in the Quran and Sunnah, Moore and others, p. 36.

(4) Human Development as Described in the Quran and Sunnah, Moore and others, pp. 37-38.

(5) The Developing Human, Moore and Persaud, 5th ed., p. 65.

(6) The Developing Human, Moore and Persaud, 5th ed., p. 8.

(7) The Developing Human, Moore and Persaud, 5th ed., p. 9.

(8) Note: The occupations of all the scientists mentioned in this web site were last updated in 1997. 

(9) The reference for this saying is This is the Truth (videotape).  For a copy of this videotape, please visit this page

(10) This is the Truth (videotape). 

(11) This is the Truth (videotape).  For a copy, see footnote no. 9. 

The source of this article is www.islam-guide.com

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